September 21, 2013

Uzbek grammar lessons - Adjectives 3


Assalomu alaykum,

This is part 3 of Adjectives in Uzbek language. If you have not reviewed previous lessons about Adjectives in Uzbek, please follow part 1 and part 2 grammar lessons.
"Did you know? During XV - XVI centuries the Great Silk Road passed through cities Samarkand, Bukhara, Khiva, Shash (Tashkent) and Fergana valley of Uzbekistan, trading horses, carpets, linen and woolen fabrics, semiprecious stones."
- advantour





We finalize most part of the adjectives (sifatlar), today.
In future, we will go in more details about usage of adjectives in sentences in between our topics about Uzbek sentences. But for now we briefly touch on the subject. If you have missed lessons about sentences please check out Question sentences in Uzbek and Negative sentences in Uzbek.

----- Now, on with the lessons -----

Plain adjectives (Sodda sifatlar) are called for only root of the adjectives. This type of adjectives has two pars, natural and unnatural adjectives.

Natural adjectives (Tub sifatlar) do not have any suffices, only root adjective: qiziq (interesting), katta (big), ko'k (blue), og'ir (heavy), to'g'ri (right, correct, straight), oq (white), etc.

Unnatural adjectives (Yasama sifatlar) usually contain forming suffices: vijdonli (conscientious), ishsiz (unemployed), tiniq (transparent, clear), tinch (peaceful), sayroqi (singing), oilaviy (familial), ilmiy (scientific), etc.

In Uzbek language we have following suffices and prefixes to create unnatural adjectives: -li, -lik, -siz, -gi (-ki, -qi), -dor,  -kor, -iy, -viy, -ma, -simon, -parvar, ser-, be-, no-, -mas, -imli, -chan etc.

Examples: chiroyli, aqlli, ko’ylaklik, qishloqlik, suvsiz, shirasiz, kuzgi, kechki, tashqi, vafodor, sepkildor, gunohkor, ehtiyotkor, aqliy, ijodiy, tarbiyaviy, afsonaviy, qaynatma sho'rva, qovurma, to'lqinsimon, odamsimon, insonparvar, tinchlikparvar, sersut, serhosil, bemaza, beodob, badavlat, baquvvat, noqulay, noo'rin, o'tmas, yengilmas, yoqimli, sevimli, ishchan, uyatchan etc.

Following table show how Nouns can be changed to Adjectives with suffices and prefixes.

chiroy [ot] beauty [noun] chiroyli [sifat] beautiful [adjective]
aql [ot] brain, intelligence [n.] aqlli [sifat] smart, intelligent [adj.]
ko'ylak [ot] dress/shirt [n.] ko'ylaklik [sifat] enough material for a dress or shirt
qishloq [ot] village [n.] qishloqlik [sifat] villagery [adj.]
suv [ot] water [n.] suvsiz [sifat] waterless [adj.]
kuz [ot] autumn [n.] kuzgi [sifat] autumnal [adj.]
davlat [ot] country, nation [n.] badavlat [sifat] prosperous [adj.]


Joint Adjectives (Qo'shma sifatlar) are made by combination of words: jigar rang (brown), ochko'z (greedy), sofdil (honest/sincere), hozirjavob (quick thinking, ready with an answer, alert), kamgap (taciturn), etc.

Pair Adjective (Juft sifatlar) are made by combination of two adjectives, usually by repeating adjective itself or pairing with another adjective: katta-kichik (big-small), oq-qora (white-black), yosh-qari (young-old), yaxshi-yomon (good-bad), issiq-sovuq (hot-cold), quyuq-suyuq (thin-thick liquid), katta-katta (big-big), baland-baland (high-high), oppoq-oppoq (pure-pure white), etc.

In Uzbek, adjectives (sifatlar) are usually placed before noun (ot) to make harmonious meaning:
qizil qalam (red pencil), ishchan yigit (hard-working young man), aqlli bola (smart child), etc.

Here are the examples about adjectives in Uzbek sentences.

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Uzbek grammar lessons - Adjectives 3
Last Reviewed by UzbekClass on September 21 2013
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